Setting Up Institutional IDP

Phase 01 - Setting up Linux Virtul Machines for Institutional IDP and IRS

You are going to create and run two Linux (Ubuntu) VMs for the institutional LDAP server (IDP) and the Radius Server (IRS) on Oracle VirtualBox

Installation of VirtualBox and Downloading Ubuntu CD image

Creating Two Ubuntu VMs

    Start VirtualBox and Click on New button (at top-right) to create new virtual machine

    Enter name of the VM as: idp."your domain prefix"


    Select OS Type: Linux
    Select Version: Ubuntu (64-bit)

    Then click on Continue button

    Set VM's memory size to 1GB and click on Continue button
    Set VM's hard disk option to

      Create a virtual hard disk now

    and then click on Continue
    Select disk type to VDI
    Select storage type to Fixed size
    Make sure virtual hard disk file name in following format
    idp."institution domain prefix"
    adjust the disk size to 10.0GB
    and click on Create to create the VM

    This might take couple of minutes
    (Note down the location of vdi image file when VirtualBox flashes it on the screen)

Setting up boot device

    Select the VM from left panel on Virtual box, right click and open Settings
    Click on Storage title and select CD ROM icon under the Controller:IDE
    Click on CD ROM icon under the Attribute on the left side to select
    Choose Virtual Optical Disk File
    Locate the Ubuntu CD image file you downloaded from the LEARN ftp

Setting up Network Interface

    Click on the Network title
    While Enable Network Adapter selected
    choose Attached to be Bride Adapter

Turn on VM for your IDP

    Right click on VM to make a Normal Start VM
    You should now see a separate window with Ubuntu Installation screen

Installation of Ubuntu Linux

Initial Installation options

    1. Select English as language for the installation wizard
    2. Select Ubuntu Server
    3. Select English for VM's OS language
    4. Select location by
    Others->Asia->Sri Lanka
    5. Keep locales as default United States
    6. Press No for configure Keyboard
    7. Select English (US) for country of origin for the keyboard

    Now it might take sometime to detect the hardware and load the necessary Linux modules

    Note that it configure network with DCHP

    8. type host name as: idp."your domain prefix"
    9.When it asked, add a User by entering Your Name, your username, password
    10. You may select No for not to encrypt home directory
    11. Select Yes confirm the time-zone

Disk Configuration

    Your have 8GB hard drive previously configured for your VM
    12. Select Manual
    13. Select the Disk "SCSI3(0,0,0) (sda) - 10.0 GB ATA VBOX HARDDISK" and Select Yes to create new partition table
    14. Select Free Space to create following partitions and mount them as follows. Use EXT4 for all partitions except for SWAP partition
      i. a primary partition for /boot 512MB - turn on Bootable flag
      ii. a primary partition for Linux SWAP (two times the RAM) SWAP 2GB
      iii. a primary partition for Linux Logical Volume for remaining disk space
      Then use Logical Volume Manager to create a Volume Group named as "idp" and logical volumes for followings.
      iv. a logical volume root for / 2GB
      v. a logical volume usr for /usr 3GB
      vi. a logical volume var for /var rest of the free space

      Get above partitions mounted as /, /usr and /var with the file system EXT4 selected.
      Then finish the partitioning and confirm it to write to the disk

    Now it might take sometime to install the OS base.

Final Configuration

    15. At the package manager, click Continue not to use any proxy settings
    Again it might take times to install rest of the packages.
    16. Select No automatic updates
    17. Select only
      a. standard system utilities
      b. OpenSSH server

    Wait until it finished the installation of software
    18. Finally install/setup the GRUB boot loader by selecting Yes
    19. Finish the installation of Ubuntu by selecting Continue
    VM now should restart with the newly installed OS.

    You may now login using your credentials

Playing with Linux

    You may try some of the Linux command to see around and play with

    df -h to see the disk configuration
    ifconfig to see the network configuration
    ls / to see the directory structure
    nano -w "filename" to edit a text/configuration file
    vi "filename" to edit a file if you are familiar with vi
    reboot to restart the VM
    halt to turn of the VM

Create the Second VM for your IRS

    You will now easily create the second VM using VM cloning. This VM is for you institutional radius which will be used for hands-on tomorrow.

    First Power off/shutdown your IDP VM
    Right click on the VM to select Clone option
    Assign new name as irs."your institute domain prefix"
    Check "Reinitialize the MAC address for all network cards
    And then click on Continue
    Select Full clone
    This might take sometime to create the new virtual disk image (vdi) file. Note that your new VM is same as your previous one. You have to change host name, ip addresses, etc accordingly.
    When the cloning finished, start you new VM and do following to change the host name

    edit /etc/hostname file and change host name to irs. You may use vi or nano editor.

    also edit /etc/hosts file to change idp to irs

Setting UP IP Addresses

Please use following IPs for your idp and irs

Institute Domain prefix under IDP IP IRS IP
Industrial Technology Institute iti
National Engineering Research & Development Center nerdc
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka wyb
University Grant Commission ugc
University of Vocational Technology univotec
National Institute of Social Development nisd
University of Peradeniya pdn
General Sir John Kotelawala Defence University kdu
Sri Palee Campus, University of Colombo spc
Rajarata University of Sri Lanka rjt
Uva Wellassa University of Sri Lanka uwu
University College of Kuliyapitiya uck
Buddhist & Pali University of Sri Lanka bpu
University of Jaffna jfn
Open University of Sri Lanka ou
Bhiksu University of Sri Lanka busl
National Center for Advanced Studies ncas
Informatics Institute of Technology iit
Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka sab
Eastern University esn
University of Ruhuna ruh
University of Sri Jayawardenepura sjp
University of Colombo UCSC ucsc
South Eastern University of Sri Lanka seu
University of Kelaniya kln
University of Visual & Performing Arts vpa
University of Moratuwa mrt
Sri Lanka Institute of Advanced Technological Education sliate
Arthur C Clark Center accmt
University of Colombo cmb

Edit /etc/network/interfaces files to include your IP addresses in your IDP and IRS

iface eth0 inet static

    address 192.248.4.your idp/irs IP
    dns-search yourdmain

When you completed the IP settings of both VMs, restart them and then login to confirm correct IP settings.

Also confirm whether you could reach your idp and irs by their DNS. For example you may ping to


If not LEARN manages your DNS, you may add the relevant entries to your primary DNS server.

Getting you Ubuntu OS up to date

    At this time we are not going set new repositories but use the ubuntu default for updating the system
    sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

Phase 02 - Setting up OpenLDAP and Encrypt OpenLDAP connections using STARTTLS

OpenLDAP provides an LDAP directory service that is flexible and well-supported. In this lab, we will demonstrate how to encrypt connections to OpenLDAP using STARTTLS.

Setting the Hostname and FQDN

Before you get started, make sure you set up our server so that it correctly resolves its hostname and fully qualified domain name (FQDN). This will be necessary in order for our certificates to be validated by clients.

    check FQDN by

    hostname -f

Install the OpenLDAP Server

    If you do not already have OpenLDAP installed, now is the time to fix that. Update your server's local package index and install the software by typing:

      sudo apt-get update
      sudo apt-get install slapd ldap-utils

    Note: if your apt-get trying to use IPv6 and it does not get connected, you may add following flag at the of the apt-get command

      -o Acquire::ForceIPv4=true

    You will be asked to provide an LDAP administrative password. Feel free to skip the prompt, as we will be reconfiguring immediately after.

    In order to access some additional prompts that we need, we'll reconfigure the package after installation. To do so, type:

      sudo dpkg-reconfigure slapd

    Answer the prompts appropriately, using the information below as a starting point:

  • Omit OpenLDAP server configuration? No (we want an initial database and configuration)
  • DNS domain name: (use the server's domain name, minus the hostname. This will be used to create the base entry for the information tree)
  • Organization name: Example Inc (This will simply be added to the base entry as the name of your institute)
  • Administrator password: [whatever you'd like]
  • Confirm password: [must match the above]
  • Database backend to use: HDB (out of the two choices, this has the most functionality)
  • Do you want the database to be removed when slapd is purged? (your choice. Choose "Yes" to allow a completely clean removal, choose "No" to save your data even when the software is removed)
  • Move old database? Yes
  • Allow LDAPv2 protocol? No

Install the SSL Components

    Once your OpenLDAP server is configured, we can go ahead and install the packages we'll use to encrypt our connection. The Ubuntu OpenLDAP package is compiled against the GnuTLS SSL libraries, so we will use GnuTLS to generate our SSL credentials:

      sudo apt-get install gnutls-bin ssl-cert

    With all of our tools installed, we can begin creating the certificates and keys needed to encrypt our connections.

    Create the Certificate Templates

    To encrypt our connections, we'll need to configure a certificate authority and use it to sign the keys for the LDAP server(s) in our infrastructure. So for our single server setup, we will need two sets of key/certificate pairs: one for the certificate authority itself and one that is associated with the LDAP service.

    To create the certificates needed to represent these entities, we'll create some template files. These will contain the information that the certtool utility needs in order to create certificates with the appropriate properties.

    Start by making a directory to store the template files:

      sudo mkdir /etc/ssl/templates

    Create the CA Template

    Create the template for the certificate authority first. We'll call the file ca_server.conf. Create and open the file in your text editor:

      sudo nano /etc/ssl/templates/ca_server.conf

    We only need to provide a few pieces of information in order to successfully create a certificate authority. We need to specify that the certificate will be for a CA (certificate authority) by adding the ca option. We also need the cert_signing_key option to give the generated certificate the ability to sign additional certificates. We can set the cn to whatever descriptive name we'd like for our certificate authority:

      cn = LDAP Server CA

    Save and close the file.

    Create the LDAP Service Template

    Next, we can create a template for our LDAP server certificate called ldap_server.conf. Create and open the file in your text editor with sudo privileges:

      sudo nano /etc/ssl/templates/ldap_server.conf

    Here, we'll provide a few different pieces of information. We'll provide the name of our organization and set the tls_www_server, encryption_key, and signing_key options so that our cert has the basic functionality it needs.

    The cn in this template must match the FQDN of the LDAP server. If this value does not match, the client will reject the server's certificate. We will also set the expiration date for the certificate. We'll create a 10 year certificate to avoid having to manage frequent renewals:

      organization = "Name of your institution"
      cn =
      expiration_days = 3652

    Save and close the file when you're finished.

    Create CA Key and Certificate

    Now that we have our templates, we can create our two key/certificate pairs. We need to create the certificate authority's set first.

    Use the certtool utility to generate a private key. The /etc/ssl/private directory is protected from non-root users and is the appropriate location to place the private keys we will be generating. We can generate a private key and write it to a file called ca_server.key within this directory by typing:

      sudo certtool -p --outfile /etc/ssl/private/ca_server.key

    Now, we can use the private key that we just generated and the template file we created in the last section to create the certificate authority certificate. We will write this to a file in the /etc/ssl/certs directory called ca_server.pem:

      sudo certtool -s --load-privkey /etc/ssl/private/ca_server.key --template /etc/ssl/templates/ca_server.conf --outfile /etc/ssl/certs/ca_server.pem

    We now have the private key and certificate pair for our certificate authority. We can use this to sign the key that will be used to actually encrypt the LDAP session.

    Create LDAP Service Key and Certificate

    Next, we need to generate a private key for our LDAP server. We will again put the generated key in the /etc/ssl/private directory for security purposes and will call the file ldap_server.key for clarity.

    We can generate the appropriate key by typing:

      sudo certtool -p --sec-param high --outfile /etc/ssl/private/ldap_server.key

    Once we have the private key for the LDAP server, we have everything we need to generate a certificate for the server. We will need to pull in almost all of the components we've created thus far (the CA certificate and key, the LDAP server key, and the LDAP server template).

    We will put the certificate in the /etc/ssl/certs directory and name it ldap_server.pem. The command we need is:

      sudo certtool -c --load-privkey /etc/ssl/private/ldap_server.key --load-ca-certificate /etc/ssl/certs/ca_server.pem --load-ca-privkey /etc/ssl/private/ca_server.key --template /etc/ssl/templates/ldap_server.conf --outfile /etc/ssl/certs/ldap_server.pem

    Give OpenLDAP Access to the LDAP Server Key

    We now have all of the certificates and keys we need. However, currently, our OpenLDAP process will be unable to access its own key.

    A group called ssl-cert already exists as the group-owner of the /etc/ssl/private directory. We can add the user our OpenLDAP process runs under (openldap) to this group:

      sudo usermod -aG ssl-cert openldap

    Now, our OpenLDAP user has access to the directory. We still need to give that group ownership of the ldap_server.key file though so that we can allow read access. Give the ssl-cert group ownership over that file by typing:

      sudo chown :ssl-cert /etc/ssl/private/ldap_server.key

    Now, give the ssl-cert group read access to the file:

      sudo chmod 640 /etc/ssl/private/ldap_server.key

    Our OpenSSL process can now access the key file properly.
    Configure OpenLDAP to Use the Certificate and Keys

    We have our files and have configured access to the components correctly. Now, we need to modify our OpenLDAP configuration to use the files we've made. We will do this by creating an LDIF file with our configuration changes and loading it into our LDAP instance.

    Move to your home directory and open a file called addcerts.ldif. We will put our configuration changes in this file:

      cd ~
      nano addcerts.ldif

    To make configuration changes, we need to target the cn=config entry of the configuration DIT. We need to specify that we are wanting to modify the attributes of the entry. Afterwards we need to add the olcTLSCACertificateFile, olcCertificateFile, and olcCertificateKeyFile attributes and set them to the correct file locations.

    The end result will look like this:

      dn: cn=config
      changetype: modify
      add: olcTLSCACertificateFile
      olcTLSCACertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ca_server.pem
      add: olcTLSCertificateFile
      olcTLSCertificateFile: /etc/ssl/certs/ldap_server.pem
      add: olcTLSCertificateKeyFile
      olcTLSCertificateKeyFile: /etc/ssl/private/ldap_server.key

    Save and close the file when you are finished. Apply the changes to your OpenLDAP system using the ldapmodify command:

      sudo ldapmodify -H ldapi:// -Y EXTERNAL -f addcerts.ldif

    We can reload OpenLDAP to apply the changes:

      sudo service slapd force-reload

    Our clients can now be configured to encrypt their connections to the server over the conventional ldap:// port by using STARTTLS.

Setting up the Client Machines

    In order to connect to the LDAP server and initiate a STARTTLS upgrade, the clients must have access to the certificate authority certificate and must request the upgrade.
    On the OpenLDAP Server

    If you are interacting with the OpenLDAP server from the server itself, you can set up the client utilities by copying the CA certificate and adjusting the client configuration file.

    First, copy the CA certificate from the /etc/ssl/certs directory to a file within the /etc/ldap directory. We will call this file ca_certs.pem. This file can be used to store all of the CA certificates that clients on this machine may wish to access. For our purposes, this will only contain a single certificate:

      sudo cp /etc/ssl/certs/ca_server.pem /etc/ldap/ca_certs.pem

    Now, we can adjust the system-wide configuration file for the OpenLDAP utilities. Open up the configuration file in your text editor with sudo privileges:

      sudo nano /etc/ldap/ldap.conf

    Adjust the value of the TLS_CACERT option to point to the file we just created:

      TLS_CACERT /etc/ldap/ca_certs.pem
      TLS_REQCERT allow

    Save and close the file.

    You should now be able to upgrade your connections to use STARTTLS by passing the -Z option when using the OpenLDAP utilities. You can force STARTTLS upgrade by passing it twice. Test this by typing:

      ldapwhoami -H ldap:// -x -ZZ

    This forces a STARTTLS upgrade. If this is successful, you should see:

    STARTTLS success


    If you mis-configured something, you will likely see an error like this:

    STARTTLS failure

    ldap_start_tls: Connect error (-11)
    additional info: (unknown error code)

Configuring Remote Clients

    If you are connecting to your OpenLDAP server from remote servers, you will need to complete a similar process. First, you must copy the CA certificate to the client machine. You can do this easily with the scp utility. To copy the file /etc/ldap/ca_certs.pem from IDP to IR

    Login to IRS and install LDAP client

      sudo apt-get install ldap-utils
      sudo apt-get install gnutls-bin ssl-cert

    Use following command to copy the CA CERT from IDP to IRS. Use following command on IDP

      sudo scp /etc/ldap/ca_certs.pem

    Then on IRS, copy the file to /etc/ldap

      sudo cp /home/your_username/ca_certs.pem /etc/ldap

    Then modify /etc/ldap/ldap.conf as done above

    Test the STARTTLS upgrade by typing this:

      ldapwhoami -H ldap:// -x -ZZ

Force Connections to Use TLS

We've successfully configured our OpenLDAP server so that it can seamlessly upgrade normal LDAP connections to TLS through the STARTTLS process. However, this still allows unencrypted sessions, which may not be what you want.

We will use an LDIF file to make the changes. Create the LDIF file in your home directory of IDP. We will call it forcetls.ldif:

    nano forcetls.ldif

Inside, target the DN you want to force TLS on. In our case, this will be dn: olcDatabase={1}hdb,cn=config. We will set the changetype to "modify" and add the olcSecurity attribute. Set the value of the attribute to "tls=1" to force TLS for this DIT:

    dn: olcDatabase={1}hdb,cn=config
    changetype: modify
    add: olcSecurity
    olcSecurity: tls=1

Save and close the file when you are finished.

To apply the change, type:

    sudo ldapmodify -H ldapi:// -Y EXTERNAL -f forcetls.ldif

Reload the OpenLDAP service by typing:

    sudo service slapd force-reload

Now, if you search the dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk DIT, you will be refused if you do not use the -Z option to initiate a STARTTLS upgrade:

    ldapsearch -H ldap:// -x -b "dc=example,dc=com" -LLL dn

TLS required failure

Confidentiality required (13)
Additional information: TLS confidentiality required

We can demonstrate that STARTTLS connections still function correctly:

    ldapsearch -H ldap:// -x -b "dc=example,dc=com" -LLL -Z dn

TLS required success

dn: dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk

dn: cn=admin,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk

Adding Initial Identity to your LDAP Directory Service

    Having setup LDAP Server and Client connection using STARTTLS, it is time add initial identity to you directory service. This include adding user credential and attributes, group information, etc.

    The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) is a standard plain text data interchange format for representing LDAP directory content and update requests. LDIF conveys directory content as a set of records, one record for each object (or entry). It also represents update requests, such as Add, Modify, Delete, and Rename, as a set of records, one record for each update request.

    Creating initial LDIF
    Open a new file named as initial.ldif using nano or vi editor. Then copy following ldif content and do necessary adjustments to match with you institute.

      # group,
      dn: ou=group,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      description: learn groups
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: organizationalUnit
      ou: group

      # adm staf, group,
      dn: cn=adm,ou=group,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: adm
      description: System Admin Staff
      gidNumber: 1000
      objectClass: posixGroup
      objectClass: top

      # acadamic staf, group,
      dn: cn=acd,ou=group,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: acd
      description: Acadamic Staff
      gidNumber: 2000
      objectClass: posixGroup
      objectClass: top

      # students, group,
      dn: cn=std,ou=group,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: bod
      description: Students
      gidNumber: 5000
      objectClass: posixGroup
      objectClass: top

      # servers,
      dn: ou=servers,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      description: inst servers that are LDAP clients
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: organizationalUnit
      ou: servers

      # idp, servers,
      dn: cn=idp,ou=servers,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: idp
      description: Identity Server
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: device
      objectClass: ipHost
      objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
      userPassword: {crypt}idpldap

      # irs, servers,
      dn: cn=irs,ou=servers,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: irs
      description: IRS Server
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: device
      objectClass: ipHost
      objectClass: simpleSecurityObject
      userPassword: {crypt}irsldap

      # people,
      dn: ou=people,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      description: inst users
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: organizationalUnit
      ou: people

      # testme, people,
      dn: uid=testme,ou=people,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk
      cn: Test Me
      departmentNumber: LEARN
      employeeNumber: 02
      employeeType: Test Account
      facsimileTelephoneNumber: 081 2003032
      gecos: Test Me
      gidNumber: 1000
      givenName: Test Me
      homeDirectory: /home/testme
      homePhone: none
      homePostalAddress: none
      initials: T M
      jpegPhoto: none
      labeledURI: none
      loginShell: /usr/local/bin/bash
      mobile: none
      objectClass: person
      objectClass: organizationalPerson
      objectClass: inetOrgPerson
      objectClass: posixAccount
      objectClass: top
      objectClass: shadowAccount
      shadowExpire: 14940
      shadowFlag: 134538484
      shadowInactive: 0
      shadowLastChange: 14483
      shadowMax: 13100
      shadowMin: 0
      shadowWarning: 7
      sn: Test
      telephoneNumber: 3032
      uid: testme
      uidNumber: 1001
      userPassword: testme

    Note that user passwords are not encrypted (in clear text format).

    Adding LDIF to LDAP
    Use ldapadd command to add new entries to your LDAP server. You may need to enter LDAP admin password.

      ldapadd -H ldap:// -x -D "cn=admin,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk" -W -Z -f initial.ldif


    ldapsearch -H ldap:// -x -D "cn=admin,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk" -W -Z -b "dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk"

    Note that Clear-Text userPassword enconded in base64

Deleting ldap entity

    ldapdelete -H ldap:// "uid=user,ou=people,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk" -D "cn=admin,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk" -Z -W

Setting LDAP Access Control

You can simply see the existing ACLs by

    ldapsearch -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -b cn=config 'olcDatabase={1}hdb'

Create new file named acc1.ldif with following modification to ACLs. This will provide your irs to read users passwords.

    dn: olcDatabase={1}hdb,cn=config
    changetype: modify

    replace: olcAccess
    olcAccess: {0}to attrs=userPassword by self write by anonymous auth by dn.children="ou=servers,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk" read by * none
    olcAccess: {1}to attrs=shadowLastChange by self write by * read
    olcAccess: {2}to * by * read

Use following command to externally modify the ACLs

    ldapmodify -Y EXTERNAL -H ldapi:/// -f acc1.ldif

If your have finished above LDAP configuration, you may optionally try to install PHPLDAPAdmin

Install phpLDAPadmin to Manage LDAP with a Web Interface

Although it is very possible to administer LDAP through the command line, most users will find it easier to use a web interface. We're going to install phpLDAPadmin, which provides this functionality, to help remove some of the friction of learning the LDAP tools.

The Ubuntu repositories contain the phpLDAPadmin package. You can install it by first login to your IDP and then typing:

    sudo apt-get install phpldapadmin apache2-utils

Edit configuration file to make following adjustments

    nano /etc/phpldapadmin/config.php

    $config->custom->appearance['hide_template_warning'] = true;

Create SSL Certificate for you apache web server

    sudo mkdir /etc/apache2/ssl

Next, we can create the key and certificate in one movement by typing:

    sudo openssl req -x509 -nodes -days 365 -newkey rsa:2048 -keyout /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.key -out /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.crt

Create a Password Authentication File

We also want to password protect our phpLDAPadmin location. Even though phpLDAPadmin has password authentication, this will provide an extra level of protection.

    sudo htpasswd -c /etc/apache2/htpasswd testme

Then enter your password.

Secure Apache

The first thing we should do is enable the SSL module in Apache. We can do this by typing:

    sudo a2enmod ssl

This will enable the module, allowing us to use it. We still need to configure Apache to take advantage of this though.

Currently, Apache is reading a file called 000-default.conf for regular, unencrypted HTTP connections. We need to tell it to redirect requests for our phpLDAPadmin interface to our HTTPS interface so that the connection is encrypted.

When we redirect traffic to use our SSL certificates, we'll also implement the password file to authenticate users. While we're modifying things, we'll also change the location of the phpLDAPadmin interface itself to minimize targeted attacks.

Configure the HTTP Virtual Host

Next, we need to modify our current Virtual Hosts file. Open it with root privileges in your editor:

    sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/000-default.conf

The changes we discussed will end up looking like this. Modify the items in bold with your own values:

    <VirtualHost *:80/>
    DocumentRoot /var/www/html
    Redirect permanent /phpldapadmin

    ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
    CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

Configure the HTTPS Virtual Host File

Apache includes a default SSL Virtual Host file. However, it is not enabled by default.

We can enable it by typing:

    sudo a2ensite default-ssl.conf

This will link the file from the sites-available directory into the sites-enabled directory. We can edit this file now by typing:

    sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-enabled/default-ssl.conf

This file is a bit more involved than the last one, so we will only discuss the changes that we have to make. All of the changes below should go within the Virtual Host block in the file.

First of all, set the ServerName value to your server's domain name or IP address again and change the ServerAdmin directive as well:

Next, we need to set the SSL certificate directives to point to the key and certificate that we created. The directives should already exist in your file, so just modify the files they point to:

    SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.crt
    SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/ssl/apache.key

The last thing we need to do is set up the location block that will implement our password protection for the entire phpLDAPadmin installation.

We do this by referencing the location where we are serving the phpLDAPadmin and setting up authentication using the file we generated. We will require anyone attempting to access this content to authenticate as a valid user:

    <Location /phpldapadmin>
    AuthType Basic
    AuthName "Restricted Files"
    AuthUserFile /etc/apache2/htpasswd
    Require valid-user

Save and close the file when you are finished.

Restart Apache to implement all of the changes that we have made:

    sudo service apache2 restart

We can now move on to the actual interface.

Enter your apache password first and then ldap admin password

Phase 03 - Linking Your IRS with IDP

Before you continue with the rest of the lab exercise below, you need a working Radius server in your IRS. It is going to be installed and configured tomorrow at the eduroam session. So wait till tomorrow afternoon.

Then you need to install freeradius ldap modules by

    sudo service freeradius stop

    sudo apt-get install freeradius-ldap

    sudo service freeradius start

Configure your FreeRadius to use LDAP authentication

Edit /etc/freeradius/mods-available/ldap to add following lines needed for IRS to connect with your IDP (LDAP). Add them in where appropriate.

    server = ''
    identity = 'cn=irs,ou=servers,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk'
    password = irsldap
    base_dn = 'ou=people,dc=inst,dc=ac,dc=lk'

Find the ttls block down below the same file to uncomment


Locate edir_qutz=no and change it to edir_autz = yes

Create a symbolic link as

    ln -s /etc/freeradius/mods-available/ldap /etc/freeradius/mods-enabled/ldap

Edit mods-available/eap to change tls default_eap_type to mschapv2

locate ttls{ block down below the file and modify as follows

    default_eap_type = mschapv2

Edit sites-available/eduroam-inner-tunnel to locate ldap directive in Authorize section and then uncomment it.

Then restart your freeradius service

If nothing went wrong, you should be able to do a radius eap test to verify authontication by your IDP.

./rad_eap_test -H -S testing123 -P 1812 -u -p Ask_LEARN -e PEAP -m WPA-EAP -c

Setting up Wireless APs

First you need to add your WAP as client to freeradius server. Add following to the end of /etc/freeradius/clients file

client waps {
ipaddr =
secret = labpass

It is now time to quickly setup your WAPs to use 802.1X radius authentication through your IRS. One AP is going to be shared by four people. Each can create a eduroam SSID to get your IRS attached.

SSIDs should be as follows

AP - 01 -


AP - 02 -


AP - 03 -
AP - 10 -

Login to Your WAP
Login to your AP by entering IP address of the AP as the URL in you web browser

Then login using following credentials
User name: admin
Password: admin

Creating SSID for Aruba WAPs

Locate Network Tab on the left of your web GUI and Click on New to add new SSID.
At the New WLAN dialog box
Enter Name (SSID): eduroam1XX and click on Next
Click no Next again to accept default setting for VLAN
at the Security tab, move the pointer in your left to Enterprise
then set

    Key Management : WPA-2 Enterprise
    At Authentication server select New in the drop down list
    Now enter you IRS IP address and the Secret (labpass)

    (Note that at this point you have to add your WAP as client to your clients configuration file of your freeRadius)

    then click Next and then Finish

Now try you laptop or mobile device to connect your SSID

Congratulation !!. You have done